I’m sure going by plane is better
Я уверена, что лететь на самолете удобнее
I can’t agree
Я не согласен
Going by train is more comfortable
Ехать поездом удобнее
The journey was organized very well
Путешествие было хорошо организовано
It will take two days to get to…
Вам потребуется два дня, чтоб добраться до…
I wish you a pleasant trip/Have a nice journey
Желаю приятного путешествия
To my mind
Exercise 1 Read and translate short dialogues.
A: Going to Sochi by plane is better than going by train.
B: I can’t agree with you, because going by train is more interesting.
A. Our journey was wonderful.
B: How right you are; it was well organized
A: Is Tomsk far from your native city?
B: Oh, it will take you three days to get there by train or 5 hours by plane.
A: I wish you a pleasant trip.
B: Thank you
A: Industry is more developed than agriculture in the east
B: That’s right. To my mind it is because the climate is cold there
1. country ['k۸ntri] -1. страна; 2. родина
a highly developed [di'veləpt] country - высокоразвитая страна
a developing country - развивающаяся страна
2. nation [neiʃn] - 1. страна, государство; 2. народ, нация, народность
3. nationality [,næʃә'næliti] -национальность
4. people ['pi:pl] - 1. народ, нация; 2. люди
5. population [,pכpju'leiʃ(ә)n] -население
6. density ['densiti] - плотность: The density of the population is 158 inhabitants [in'hæbitәnts] per square kilome tres. Плотность населения составляет 158 человек на кв. км.
7. ocean ['ouʃ(ә)n] - океан the Atlantic [әt'læntik] Ocean (the Atlantic), the Pacific [pә'sifik] (Ocean): In the east Ja pan is washed by the Pacific (Ocean).
8. sea [si:] -море the Baltic ['bכ:ltik] Sea the Mediterranean [,meditә'reinjәn] Sea
9. island ['ailәnd], isle [ail] -остров: Australia [כ:s'treiljә] is an island. The British Isles Британские острова
10. peninsula [pi'ninsjulә]-n полуостров: the Balkan ['bכ:lkәn] Peninsula
11. area ['еәriә] -1. площадь; 2. район, область, зона: The area of the USA is about 9,400,000 sq. km. Japan has an area of 372,200 sq. km.
12. border ['bכ:dә], frontier ['fr۸ntjә], boundary ['baund(ә)ri] -граница: The border (the boundary) between Europe and Asia lies along the Urals ['juәr(ә)lz]. In the south the frontier of Russia runs over a number of mountains.
13. total area - общая площадь
14. a plain - равнина
15. a mountain chain - горная цепь
16. climate - климат (arctic - арктический , continental - континентальный, subtropical - субтропический)
17. vast mineral resources - богатые запасы полезных ископаемых
18. a branch - власть (как часть правительства) (legislative - законодательный, executive - исполнительный, judicial - судебный
19. the Federal Assembly - Федеральное собрание
20. a chamber - палата
21. the Council of Federation - Совет Федерации
22. commander-in-chief - главнокомандующий
23. court - суд (the Constitutional Court - Конституционный суд, the Supreme Court - Верховный суд, regional court - региональный суд
24. the state symbol - государственный символ
25. a banner - знамя
26. a hymn - гимн
27. national emblem - национальный герб
28. minute of silence - минута молчания
29. fireworks - фейерверк
30. a custom - обычай
31. Christmas - Рождество
32. Easter - Пасха
1. to occupy ['כkjupai] an area, to cover ['k۸vә] an area - занимать площадь: Turkey [tə:ki] occupies a small area on the Balkan Peninsula.
2. to lie [lai], to be located [lou'keitid], to be situated ['sitjueitid] -быть расположенным, находиться, лежать: to be situated in the northern ['nכ:ð(ә)n], southern ['s۸ð(ә)n], eastern ['i:st(ә)n], western ['west(ә)n] part of the country; Italy lies south of France. Volgograd is located on the Volga.
3. border (on, upon) -граничить (с): What countries does Italy border on?
4. to stretch - простираться, тянуться
5. to separate - отделять
6. to flow into - впадать (во что-либо)
7. to be set up by smth - быть учрежденным, основанным в соответствии с чем-либо
8. to be checked by smb - контролироваться кем-либо
9. to be balanced by smb - балансироваться, уравновешиваться кем-либо
10. to be vested in - осуществляться кем-либо
11. to initiate a legislature - внести законопроект
12. to approve a bill - принять законопроект
13. to be signed by smb - быть подписанным кем-либо
14. to veto the bill - наложить вето на законопроект
15. enforce a law - проводить закон в жизнь
16. to appoint a minister - назначить министра
17. to be represented by smb - быть представленным кем-либо
18. to be elected by popular vote - быть избранным всенародным голосованием
19. to celebrate - праздновать
С определенным артиклем употребляются а) названия сторон света: the North, the South, the East, the West; б) названия рек: the Volga; в) названия морей и океанов: the Black Sea, the Arctic Ocean; г) названия горных хребтов: the Alps, the Urals; д) названия некоторых регионов и областей: the Caucasus ['kכ:kәsәs], the Crimea [krai'miә], the Ukraine [ju:'krein], the Far East; e) названия полуостровов и групп островов: the Balkan Peninsula, the British Isles; ж) названия стран, включающие такие слова, как union ['ju:njәn] союз (государственное объединение), kingdom ['kiŋdәm] королевство, state [steit] штат, republic [ri'р۸bliк], federation федерация: the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union (the USSR), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ['aiәlәnd], the United States of America (the USA), the Federal Republic of Germany.
Артикли не употребляются: а) перед названиями стран, состоящими из одного слова— France, Italy; б) перед названиями городов — Kiev, London; в) перед названиями континентов — Europe ['juәrәp], Asia ['eiʃә].
Exercise 1 Pronounce the following words paying attention to the way of pronunciation of stressed vowels
/ ۸/ country, frontier, custom, southern, republic
/a:/ arctic, branch, larch, Abkhazia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan
/au/ boundary, mountain
/ai/ highly, island, climate, pine, China, Altai
/e/ develop, density, assembly
/æ/ nationality, banner, Latvia, Japan, Caspian, Sayan
/ei/ nation, population, situated, reindeer, sable, Asia, Lithuania
/):/ walrus, boar, Baltic, Caucasus, cork
/ou/ ocean, roe, oak, Estonia, Mongolia
/i/ peninsular, symbol, hymn, lynx, ginseng, Pacific
/i:/ Supreme, Easter, cedar, Siberia
/ə:/ermine, birch, fir-tree, Georgia
/juə/ Urals, Europe, union
Exercise 2. Pronounce the following words paying attention to the way of pronunciation of the consonants and combinations of consonants.
/ʃ/ nation, nationality, ocean
/-/ island, Christmas
/ʧ/ natural, legislature, larch
Exercise 3. Pronounce the following proper names correctly
Europe, Asia, Baltic countries, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Norway, Byelorussia, Ukraine, Abkhazia, Georgia, Ossetia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, the Korean People’s Democratic Republic, Japan, the USA, the Arctic ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Caspian Sea, the West Siberian plain, the Urals, the Altai, the Sayans, the Caucasus
Exercise 1. Make adjectives from the following nouns. What suffix did you use?
the North –
the South –
the West –
the East –
Exercise 2. Find the word, which doesn’t suit the others.
a) Russia, France, North America, the Federal Republic of Germany, Poland;
b) Nizhni Novgorod, Moscow, Kazan, Yaroslavl, Europe;
c) the Baikal, the Lena, the Ob, the Volga, the Don.
Exercise 3. Form word combinations (adj. + noun).
Exercise 4. Make up pairs of antonyms.
deep, high, rich, to separate, far, wide, cold, damp, long, vast
poor, dry, near, short, shallow, to join, small, low, narrow, warm
Exercise 5. Use suitable degrees of comparison.
1) Russia is one of the (large) countries in the world.
2) The (great) rivers are the Volga, the Lena, the Yenissey.
3) Among the lakes the (deep) one is Lake Baikal.
4) The arctic and the subarctic zones have the (cold) climate.
5) The subtropical climate is much (warm) than others.
6) Russia has (large) reserves of oil, gas and metals.
7) There is usually (much) snow in winter in our zone, the summer is (warm) and (sunny).
Exercise 6. Insert correct prepositions where necessary.
1) to cover … forests
2) to border … many countries
3) to be situated … Europe
4) to have … continental climate
5) to live … a temperate zone
6) to develop … industry
7) to be rich … natural resources
8) to be washed … many rivers and lakes
9) to consist … several parts
Exercise 7. Insert articles where necessary.
1) Russia lies in … eastern part of Europe and in … northern part of Asia.
2) It is one of … largest countries in the world.
3) There are … three main mountain chains in Russia.
4) … history of Russia dates back to the year 862.
5) Now Russia is … Presidential Republic.
Exercise 8. Translate Russian words and word combinations into English.
1) Russia (граничит) fourteen countries.
2) It is one of (самых больших) countries in the world.
3) (Многочисленные) canals join all the rivers in the European part of Russia.
4) The northern and eastern coasts of Russia (омываются) by the White Sea, by the Barents Sea and by the Okhotsk Sea.
5) Russia (расположена) on two plains.
Exercise 9. Translate into English.
1. Россия расположена в восточной части Европы и в северной части Азии. 2. Байкал – это самое глубокое озеро в мире. 3. Россия граничит с четырнадцатью странами. 4. Страна богата природными ресурсами. 5. Россия омывается тремя океанами и тринадцатью морями . 6. Волга впадает в Каспийское море. 7. Самые длинные реки – это Волга, Лена и Енисей. 8. Мы живем в умеренной климатической зоне. 9. Россия расположена на двух равнинах. 10. Урал, самая длинная горная цепь, отделяет Европу от Азии.
Exercise 1. Read and translate the text.
Russia is the largest country in the world. It covers half of Europe and a third of Asia. It is situated in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It borders on different countries. These countries there are Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Byelorussia, Ukraine, Abkhazia, Georgia, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, the Korean People’s Democratic Republic, Japan, the USA with which we have only water frontier.
Russia is washed by the Arctic Ocean in the north, by the Pacific Ocean in the east. Then there is the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Azov Sea in the south. There is the Baltic Sea in the west.
The land of Russia varies a lot from heavy forests to barren deserts, from high peaked mountains to deep valleys. Russia is located on two plains. They are: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Plain.
There are three main mountain chains in Russia. The Urals, the longest mountain chain, separates Europe from Asia but this barrier is quite artificial. There are several other mountain chains in Russia. They are the Altai, the Sayans and the Caucasus
On the territory of Russia there are a lot of rivers. Among the greatest are the Volga, the Don, the Lena, the Yenissei, the Amur. The broad Volga River system is of great historic, economic and cultural importance to Russia. It became the cradle of such ancient towns as Vladimir, Tver, Yaroslavl, Kazan, Nizhni Novgorod.
Among the lakes the deepest one is the Baikal, which contains about 20% (per cent) of the world’s fresh water supply. Numerous canals join all the rivers in the European part of Russia, making it the largest inland water transportation route in Europe.
On the vast territory of Russia there are 4 climatic zones. They are the arctic, the subarctic, the temperate and the subtropical zones. The arctic and the subarctic zones have the coldest climate. The subtropical zone is the warmest. We live in the temperate zone. The climate is moderate. In our zone we have four seasons which differ in weather greatly. The winter lasts about 4 months. There is usually much snow in winter. Summer is warm and sunny.
The European part of Russia is densely populated. There are a lot of cities, towns and villages there.
Russia is rich in natural resources. It has large reserves of oil, natural gas, copper, lead and other minerals.
Most of them are situated in Asian part of Russia, in Siberia.
The history of Russia dates back to the year 862. Now Russia is a Presidential Republic.
Russia has always played an important role in the world. It is one of its leading Powers.
Exercise 2. Choose the correct variant. Use your own knowledge about geography of Russia if necessary.
There are Baltic countries, Byelorussia and Ukraine to the (east, west, north, south) of Russia.
There is Georgia, Azerbaijan, Abkhazia and Ossetia to the (east, west, north, south) of Russia.
There is Japan and the USA to the (east, west, north, south) of Russia.
There is Arctic in the (east, west, north, south) of Russia.
There is the Pacific ocean in the (east, west, north, south) of Russia.
The Altai is in (European, Asian) part of Russia.
The Caucasus is in (European, Asian) part of Russia.
The Volga, the Don and the Desna are in (European, Asian) part of Russia.
The Lena, the Amur, the Kolyma and the Tom are in (European, Asian) part of Russia.
Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega and Lake Seliger are in (European, Asian) part of Russia.
Moscow is in (the arctic, the subarctic, the temperate and the subtropical) zone.
Sochi is in (the arctic, the subarctic, the temperate and the subtropical) zone.
Murmansk is in (the arctic, the subarctic, the temperate and the subtropical) zone.
Exercise 3. Correct the following statements. Use suitable patterns of disagreement.
Russia covers half of Europe and a fourth of Asia.
Russia borders on Georgia, Azerbaijan, Abkhazia, Ossetia and Armenia in the Caucasus.
Russia is washed by three oceans and two seas.
The landscape of Russia is the same everywhere.
There are no mountain chains in Russia.
The broad Oka River system is of great historic, economic and cultural importance to Russia.
Lake Baikal contains 50% of the world’s fresh water supply.
The climatic zones on the territory of Russia are arctic, subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical.
There are little deposits of mineral resources on the territory of Russia.
Exercise 1. Read and translate the text.
HOLIDAYS IN RUSSIA
There are a lot of holidays in Russia. They can be divided into 4 groups. They are: public holidays, religious holidays, professional holidays and adopted holidays.
First of all we shall speak about public holidays. The year begins with the New Year. We celebrate this holiday at night of the 1st of January. Usually people begin to celebrate it in the evening of the 31st of December. Before the holiday we decorate the New Year Tree and children write letters to Father Frost and ask him to present them some special things. At midnight we congratulate each other on the beginning of the New Year and drink Champaign. The streets of cities are decorated with the illumination. At night people have parties either family ones or parties with friends.
The next holiday is celebrated on the 23rd of February. It is the Day of the Defender of Motherland. On this day women congratulate men and give them small presents.
In March we have the International Women’s Day. It is celebrated on the 8th of March. On this day men present small gifts to their mothers, wives, daughters, sisters, etc.
At the beginning of May we also have some holidays. On the 1st and the 2nd of May we have the Holiday of Spring and Labour. Formerly people had demonstrations on this day but now they are rare cases and usually people only have a rest or organize some parties as a rule in the open air.
The next great holiday in our country is the 9th of May. It is called Victory Day. In 1945 Soviet Army defeated German fascists. This holiday is widely celebrated in our country. On this day people usually have parades together with the veterans. In every city and village there are meetings devoted to this event. People lay flowers and wreaths to the Tombs of the Unknown Soldier and monuments connected with the Great Patriotic War.
On June 12 there is the Day of Independence. Some parties have political meetings on this day.
In November we have a holiday connected with the victory of Russian people over the Polish invaders. On the 4th of November people’s levy under the leadership of Minin and Pozharsky liberated Moscow. We celebrate this day and the Holiday of People’s Unity.
On December 12, there is the Constitution Day. Formerly is was a day off, but now it is an ordinary week day.
Now we shall speak about religious holidays. There are a lot of them in the calendar but we celebrate widely only some of them. On the 7th of January we have Christmas. On this day people go to churches, make presents to each other, and sometimes have parties.
On January 19, Orthodox believers celebrate Epiphany. The main traditions of this holiday are taking holy water from churches and bathing in the consecrated water.
The next holiday which we celebrate is the Easter. On this day people go to churches too, but we usually do it at midnight. By day people have a special dinner and eat specials dishes. Also people exchange painted eggs as one of the traditions.
Other religious holidays are not so widely celebrated as those ones.
The third group includes professional holidays. Nearly all professions have their special days in the calendar. The most widespread is the Teachers’ Day. It is so because nearly all people are connected with education in this or that way. Children who go to school, their parents, students, teachers and their parents celebrate this holiday. Every school has its own tradition of celebrating this holiday. 25th of January covers both a religious holiday and a professional one. On one hand it is the day of Saint Tatiana, on the other hand it is the holiday of all students.
The forth group contains adopted holidays. Among them we speak about Catholic Christmas which is celebrated on the 25th of December, Halloween which they have on the 1st of November. Certainly, the most favourite holiday of young people is the 14th of February which they call the Day of Lovers. On this day people exchange small gifts and postcards with special pictures and greetings.
Certainly all people have their own special holidays. Among them we distinguish our birthdays, family holidays and anniversaries and others. Each family has own traditions of spending these holidays.
Exercise 2. Find English equivalents.
Религиозные праздники, заимствованные праздники, писать письмо Деду Морозу, в полночь, поздравлять с, праздник весны и труда, раньше, редкие случаи, широко празднуется, возлагать цветы, венки, захватчики, календарь, дарить подарки (3), в течение дня, обмениваться крашеными яйцами, практически все люди, охватывает и религиозный и профессиональный праздник, католическое рождество, различать.
Exercise 3. Read the following sentences translating Russian words into English.
They can be (разделены) into 4 groups.
(Прежде всего) we shall speak about public holidays.
The next great holiday is (День Победы)
On this day people usually have parades (вместе с ветеранами)
On the 4th of November (народное ополчение) under the (предводительством) of Minin and Pozharsky liberated Moscow.
On this day people (ходят в церковь), make presents to each other, and sometimes have parties.
(Это потому, что) nearly all people are connected with education (тем или иным образом)
(С одной стороны) it is the day of Saint Tatiana, (с другой стороны) it is the holiday of all students.
Exercise 4. Insert articles where it is necessary.
There are … lot of holidays in Russia.
Usually people begin to celebrate it in … evening of … 31st of December.
At … night people … have parties either … family ones or parties with friends.
On … 1st and … 2nd of May we have … Holiday of Spring and Labour.
People lay flowers and wreaths to … Tomb of … Unknown Soldier and … monuments connected with … Great Patriotic War.
On this day people go to … churches too, but we usually do it at … midnight.
By day people have … special dinner and eat special dishes.
On … one hand it is … day of Saint Tatiana, on … other hand it is … holiday of all students.
Then we have … dinner and entertain in different ways.
Exercise 5. Make up sentences. Pay attention to the correct reading of the dates.
A Holiday of Spring and Labour
The Victory Day
The New Year
The Day of Saint Tatiana
The day of Lovers
The Day of People’s Unity
The Day of the Defender of Motherland
| || |
The Constitution Day
| || |
The Independence Day
| || |
Exercise 1. Write a letter to your friend. Here is a part of his letter:
“ …Not long ago I had argument with my friend. He insisted on the fact that only the Russians live in your country and due to this fact we call your country Russia. Also he said that all citizens of your country are Orthodox believers. I said that he was not right.
Tell me please which of us was correct.
Looking forward to getting your letter.
Write down a letter to your English-speaking friend answering her questions and ask her 3 questions about her family. Remember the rules of letter writing.
Exercise 2. Comment the following.
Some people say that a patriot is a person who loves his country and it is the most important thing. Other people are sure that a patriot must not only love his country but also every day try to do something to make his country better.
What is your opinion?
Follow the plan:
Give a general statement of the problem
Give your opinion and profs for it
Give other people’s opinion and say why they are not right
Make a conclusion
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